A Hungarian dog training group called Népszigeti Kutyaiskola use a variation of model-rival training which they describe as the Mirror Method. The mirror method philosophy is that dogs instinctively learn by following the example of others in their social sphere. Core to the program is including the dog in all aspects of the owner's life and positive reinforcement of copying behaviors. Mirror method dog training relies on using a dog's natural instincts and inclinations rather than working against them.[67]
We call this training ‘etiquette’ rather than ‘obedience’. Sure, an obedient dog will do what it’s told. But a dog with good social etiquette often knows what to do without being told, and doesn’t require constant ‘rewards’. Etiquette is about applying dog psychology to establish a positive relationship with the dog – so it alters its behaviour naturally. When your dog understands its place in the household it’s less stressed and you can achieve real harmony.
The 22214VIC Certificate III in Dog Behaviour and Training is Australia’s longest running and most comprehensive dog trainer certification program. The course is also a nationally recognised qualification under the Australian Qualifications Framework. The NDTF’s professional dog training courses combine theoretical canine behavioural education with an industry leading ‘hands on’ component. Each unit has its own specialist trainers, including some of whom are recognised as Australia’s leading experts in dog training and animal behaviour. Our dedicated and experienced team of instructors will work together to ensure that our graduates are truly the best in the business.
In one study laboratory-bred Beagles were divided into three groups. Group A received an electric shock when the dogs touched the prey (a rabbit dummy fixed to a motion device). Group H received a shock when they did not obey a previously trained recall command during hunting. Dogs in group R received the electric shock arbitrarily, i.e. the shock was administered unpredictably and out of context. Group A did not show a significant rise in salivary cortisol levels, while group R and group H did show a significant rise. This led to the conclusion that animals which were able to clearly associate the electric stimulus with their action, i.e. touching the prey, and consequently were able to predict and control the stressor, did not show considerable or persistent stress indicators, while animals that were not able to control the situation to avoid the shock did show significant stress.[62]

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Electronic training involves the use of an electric shock as an aversive. Common forms are collars which can be triggered remotely, or that are triggered by barking, fencing that delivers a shock when a dog wearing a special collar crosses a buried wire, and mats that can be placed on furniture to deliver a shock. Some aids deliver an aversive such as a spray of citronella when triggered.[61] The use of electric shock aversives for training dogs is the subject of considerable controversy. Supporters claim that the use of electronic devices allows training at a distance and the potential to eliminate self-rewarding behaviour, and point out that properly used, they have less risk of stress and injury than mechanical devices, such as choke chains. Opponents cite the risks of physical and psychological trauma associated with incorrect or abusive use.[62]
Laying a solid training foundation will make life with your dog easier and more fun. If you’re not sure where to start, sign up for an in-person obedience class; there’s no better way to train your dog than to practice with an expert IRL. You can also follow any of the helpful links above, and check out our blog archives for additional tips and tricks.
Dogs have an olfactory sense 40 times more sensitive than a human's and they commence their lives operating almost exclusively on smell and touch.[6]:247 The special scents that dogs use for communication are called pheromones. Different hormones are secreted when a dog is angry, fearful or confident, and some chemical signatures identify the sex and age of the dog, and if a female is in the estrus cycle, pregnant or recently given birth. Many of the pheromone chemicals can be found dissolved in a dog's urine, and sniffing where another dog has urinated gives the dog a great deal of information about that dog.[6]:250 Male dogs prefer to mark vertical surfaces and having the scent higher allows the air to carry it farther. The height of the marking tells other dogs about the size of the dog, as among canines size is an important factor in dominance.[6]:251
Dogs (and wolves) mark their territories with urine and their stools. The anal gland of canines give a particular signature to fecal deposits and identifies the marker as well as the place where the dung is left. Dogs are very particular about these landmarks, and engage in what is to humans a meaningless and complex ritual before defecating. Most dogs start with a careful bout of sniffing of a location, perhaps to erect an exact line or boundary between their territory and another dog's territory. This behavior may also involve a small degree of elevation, such as a rock or fallen branch, to aid scent dispersal. Scratching the ground after defecating is a visual sign pointing to the scent marking. The freshness of the scent gives visitors some idea of the current status of a piece of territory and if it is used frequently. Regions under dispute, or used by different animals at different times, may lead to marking battles with every scent marked-over by a new competitor.[6]:252–4
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Hormones have a significant effect on dog behaviour. In particular, testosterone tends to make male dogs more dominant, more territorial, and more interested in engaging in conflict with other dogs. Many dog day care centres refuse to accept entire (unneutered) male dogs because of the increased risk of dogs picking fights with others. So in most cases, having a male dog neutered is likely to increase the chances of having a peace-loving, calm dog.

In 1935, the American Kennel Club began obedience trials, and in the following years popular magazines raised public awareness of the benefits of having a trained pet dog, and of the recreational possibilities of dog training as a hobby.[17] After WWII, the increasing complexities of suburban living demanded that for a pet dog's own protection and its owner's convenience, the dog should be obedient. William Koehler had served as principal trainer at the War Dog Training Center, in California, and after the war became chief trainer for the Orange Empire Dog Club—at the time, the largest dog club in the United States—instructor for a number of breed clubs, and a dog trainer for the Walt Disney Studios.[18] In 1962 Koehler published The Koehler Method of Dog Training, in which he is highly critical of what he calls "tid-bit training techniques" based in "the prattle of 'dog psychologists'".[17] Amongst the training innovations attributed to Koehler is the use of a long line in conjunction with a complete absence of oral communication as a way of instilling attentiveness prior to any leash training. Koehler insisted that participants in his training classes used "emphatic corrections", including leash jerks and throw chains, explaining that tentative, nagging corrections were cruel in that they caused emotional disturbance to the dog.[19] Vicki Hearne, a disciple of Koehler's, commented on the widespread criticism of his corrections, with the explanation that it was the emotionally loaded language used in the book that led to a number of court cases, and to the book being banned in Arizona for a time.[20] Despite the controversy, his basic method forms the core of many contemporary training systems.[21]
Dominance is a descriptive term for the relationship between pairs of individuals. Among ethologists, dominance has been defined as ‘‘an attribute of the pattern of repeated, antagonistic interactions between two individuals, characterized by a consistent outcome in favor of the same dyad member and a default yielding response of its opponent rather than escalation. The status of the consistent winner is dominant and that of the loser subordinate.’’[34] Another definition is that a dominant animal has priority of access to resources.[34] Dominance is a relative attribute, not absolute; there is no reason to assume that a high-ranking individual in one group would also become high ranking if moved to another. Nor is there any good evidence that ‘‘dominance’’ is a lifelong character trait. Competitive behavior characterized by confident (e.g. growl, inhibited bite, stand over, stare at, chase, bark at) and submissive (e.g. crouch, avoid, displacement lick/yawn, run away) patterns exchanged.[35]
Tail chasing can be classified as a stereotypy. It falls under obsessive compulsive disorder, which is a neuropsychiatric disorder that can present in dogs as canine compulsive disorder.[52] In one clinical study on this potential behavioral problem, 18 tail-chasing terriers were given clomipramine orally at a dosage of 1 to 2 mg/kg (0.5 to 0.9 mg/lb) of body weight, every 12 hours. Three of the dogs required treatment at a slightly higher dosage range to control tail chasing, however, after 1 to 12 weeks of treatment, 9 of 12 dogs were reported to have a 75% or greater reduction in tail chasing.[53] Personality can also play a factor in tail chasing. Dogs who chase their tails have been found to be more shy than those who do not, and some dogs also show a lower level of response during tail chasing bouts.[52]
The Pug is a fun loving, loyal and energetic dog. Distinguishable with their short muzzle face, they originate from China and were brought to Europe in the seventeenth century. Pugs are very popular in modern times and come in two colours of black and fawn and feature deep wrinkles on their face. With their good nature, they make great pets for families with children as they have a lot of personality for such a small dog.
Observational learning is the learning that occurs through observing the behavior of others. This form of learning does not need reinforcement to occur; instead, a model animal is required. While the model may not be intentionally trying to instill any particular behavior, many behaviors that are observed are remembered and imitated.[52] The domestic dog is a social species and its social dependency makes it aware of the behavior of others, which contributes to its own behavior and learning abilities. There is, however, ongoing discussion about how much, and how, dogs can learn by interacting with each other and with people.[53]
Pests including fleas, ticks, flies, mosquitoes and rodents must be effectively controlled. Chemicals used for pest control must be either prescribed by a registered veterinarian and/or registered by the National Registration Authority (NRA) under the Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals Code (Commonwealth) and should be used only in accordance with label instructions.
Carter began her career by asking whether oxytocin, known for its role in childbirth and mother-baby bonding, could also explain why prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) mated for life. Indeed, levels of oxytocin spike in prairie voles after they build a nest and begin mating. But Carter also noticed something unusual. After mating, male prairie voles became aggressive towards other voles (their partner excepted). Further experiments revealed vasopressin as the culprit. Block vasopressin and the male voles shifted back to their more peaceable selves.
I’ve noticed an interesting trend: people who have one badly behaved dog tend to have a badly behaved dog the next time too. And people who have a well-behaved dog tend to go on having well-behaved dogs. This is no coincidence: people tend to repeat the same actions, getting the same types of dogs, and treating them in similar ways. By observing this trend, I have a clearer understanding of why dogs behave badly, and what owners can do to avoid having a badly behaved dog.
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Some dogs start to tremble with fear if their owners even drive past their local vet clinic: this is a good example of the ability that dogs have to remember negative encounters. Vets now try to ensure that pets have a fear-free, pain-free experience when visiting clinics: the long memories of dogs means that they can be taught to remember positive experiences as well as negative.  Many types of bad behaviour stem from fear and anxiety (from separation anxiety to fear of fireworks to nervous aggression). If owners take care to avoid exposing their pets to strongly negative experiences, such bad behaviours are less likely to develop.
Just like humans, dogs learn what is right and wrong or socially acceptable from their peers.  If your dog is deprived of this vital learning experience they could become 'dog aggressive' or become a target of 'dog aggression' because they doesn't understand what is play and what isn't, what is allowed and what's not.  They will often miss out on a lot of play as they are unable to read the subtle body language that dogs use to communicate and can become nervous around other dogs as they fail to understand them. 

There are a variety of established methods of animals training, each with its adherents and critics. Some of the better known dog training procedures include the Koehler method, clicker training, motivational training, electronic training, model-rival training, dominance-based training, and relationship-based training. The common characteristics of successful methods are knowing the animal's attributes and personality, accurate timing of reinforcement and/or punishment and consistent communication. The use of punishment is controversial with both the humaneness and effectiveness questioned by many behaviourists.
Strictly following the model set out in the Koehler Method of Dog Training, some 50 years later, the Koehler method continues to be taught in both class and private training formats. The method is based in the philosophy that a dog acts on its right to choose its actions. Koehler explained that a dog's learned behavior is an act of choice based on its own learning experience. When those choices are influenced by the expectation of reward, the behavior will most likely be repeated, and when those choices are influenced by the anticipation of punishment, they will most likely cease. Once the dog has learned that its choices result in comfort or discomfort it can be taught to make the correct decisions. Action→Memory→Desire encapsulates the learning pattern used by the method; the dog acts, remembers the consequences, and forms the desire to repeat or avoid those consequences. Adherents believe that once the behavior has been correctly taught, it should be performed, thus making any correction, fair, reasonable, and expected.[57] While the model has been used consistently since 1962, some of the punishment procedures described in the book are now not considered necessary, humane, or appropriate by many trainers.[23]

Dogs evolved from wolves and are therefore primed to defend what is theirs. They have an attachment to their home territory and the resources within it. Dogs have no way of knowing that the dogs and human we invite around to our home, for example for a play-date, are ever going to leave. They can be forgiven for thinking that this is the way it is going to be from hereon. So it is to be expected that they will often try to lay out the local ground-rules and put the new arrivals in their place.

From the age of 8-16 weeks your dog is in a critical period, your puppy is absorbing everything and these experiences, both good and bad, stay with them for life. By beginning your dog’s training during this early developmental stage you are setting them up with right tools to navigate their way through meeting new people, meeting other dogs, new surfaces, different noises and more.
Dogs (and wolves) mark their territories with urine and their stools. The anal gland of canines give a particular signature to fecal deposits and identifies the marker as well as the place where the dung is left. Dogs are very particular about these landmarks, and engage in what is to humans a meaningless and complex ritual before defecating. Most dogs start with a careful bout of sniffing of a location, perhaps to erect an exact line or boundary between their territory and another dog's territory. This behavior may also involve a small degree of elevation, such as a rock or fallen branch, to aid scent dispersal. Scratching the ground after defecating is a visual sign pointing to the scent marking. The freshness of the scent gives visitors some idea of the current status of a piece of territory and if it is used frequently. Regions under dispute, or used by different animals at different times, may lead to marking battles with every scent marked-over by a new competitor.[6]:252–4
Clicker training is a nickname given to a positive reinforcement training system based on operant conditioning. Clicker training can also be referred to as marker training. The system uses conditioned reinforcers which are able to be delivered more quickly and more precisely than primary reinforcers such as food. The term 'clicker' comes from a small metal cricket adapted from a child's toy that the trainer uses to precisely mark the desired behavior; however, some trainers use a whistle, a word, or even a light as the conditioned reinforcer.[60] The trainer delivers a primary reinforcer, such as a toy or treat, after the noise or signal.
Mark Potter’s British Bulldog, Diva developed Cherry Eye in each eye. "From the initial online registration to then having to make two separate claims in such a short space of time, I have experienced the full service of your company in relatively quick succession and have to say I have been very impressed firstly with the ease and secondly the speed of these transactions".
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